For many years, the Kingdom of Morocco has made irreversible and strategic choices in the field of Human Rights. These choices were reinforced by the new constitution adopted in 2011:“in compliance with international conventions, duly ratified by it,under the provisions of the constitution and laws of the Kingdom, in accordance with its immutable national identity, and upon publication of these agreements precedence over domestic law of the country”.
The fundamentallaw dedicates two chapters on rights, liberties, and related institutions. The first chapter “fundamental rights and liberties” devotes 22 articles guaranteeing the rights of Moroccan citizens and the second one about "Institutions and Bodies in Charge of The Protection of Rights and Freedoms, Good Governance, Human, Sustainable Development And Participatory Democracy”, is dedicated to constitutional institutions with the mission to protect these rights that are henceforth considered constitutional.
The commitment of Morocco to human rightstakes shapeboth through the Moroccan interaction with the international human rights system and through the expertise thatMoroccans, members and experts of various international mechanisms, bring to the UN system.
In this context, the strategic mission of the Interministerial Department for Human Rights is toenhance cooperation and interaction with all UN mechanisms, includingdrafting periodic reports and submitting them to treaties bodies in a closed cooperation of all ministries concerned.
1- The United Nations:
Morocco is party to the main instruments on human rights, namely the nine instruments that constitute the core of the international system of human rights:
- The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) -1970
- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) -1979
- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) - 1979
- The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1993
- The United Nations Convention against Tortureand Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) – 1993 ;
- The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) -1993 ;
- The International Convention on the Protection of Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW) – 1993 ;
- The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Optional Protocol (CRPD) – 2009 ;
- The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons against Enforced Disappearances (CED) – 2013 .
The treaty bodies are the monitoringcommittees’ ofthe implementation of major international human rights treaties. This monitoring is realized via periodic reports submitted by the States.
Morocco regularly submits its periodic reports to these bodies:
- The Human Rights Committee (CCPR);
- The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)
- The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
- The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
- The Committee against Torture (CAT)
- The Child Rights Committee (CRC)
- The Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW)
- The Committee on Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD)
- The Committee on Enforced Disappearances (CED)
Morocco has enhanced its interaction and cooperation with special procedure. The kingdome hosted eleven thematic special procedures, namely:
- Ms. Virginia Dandan, Independent Expert on Human Rights and International Solidarity (Country visit:January 2016).
- Ms. Hilal Elver, Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food (Country visit: October 2015).
- The Work Group on Arbitrary Detention (Country visit: December 2013).
- Ms. Joy Ngozi Ezeilo, the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially Women and Children (Country visit: June 2013).
- Mr. Juan Mendez, Special Rapporteur on Torture (Country visit : September 2012);
- The Work Group on the Issue of Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice (Country visit : February 2012).
- Ms. Frida Shaheed, Independent Expert on Cultural Rights (Country visit : September 2011);
- The Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances ( Country visit : June 2009);
- Mr. Vernor Muñoz Villalobos, Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education in ( Country visit : November-December 2006);
- Ms. Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro, Special Rapporteur on Human Rights of Immigrants (Country visit : October 2003);
- Ms. Ofelia Calcetas-Santos,Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child prostitution and Child Pornography( Country visit : February-March 2000).
Ever since the creation of the Human Rights’ Council, Morocco has contributed to the processes of establishing and strengthening of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) mechanism. It has a facilitating role in the implementation of the UPR mechanism, during the institutional construction phase of the Human Rights Council in 2006-2007. Morocco played the same role in the first UPR cycle.
According to the Agenda of the first cycle, Morocco was one of the first four States examined in this new mechanism. It submitted the first report in March 2008 and a second one in 2012 due to the UPR’s second cycle.
Morocco has also, voluntarily submitted a mid-term report, in 2014, on the implementation of the last UPR’s recommendations: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/MASession13.aspx.
Morocco is considered as a committed party in the contribution to the development of the United Nations’ system. It also shares its national expertise through different national experts:
- Hassan El Ouazzni Chahdi, member of the International Law Commission ( 2016) ;
- Abdellah Ounnir, member of the Subcommittee on the prevention of torture (2016) ;
- Aicha Afifi, member of the Joint Inspection Unit of The United Nation system (2016-2020) ;
- Hind Ayoubi Idrissi, member of the Committee on the Rights of the Child ( 2015-2018) ;
- Houria Esslami, Chairperson of the Working Group on Forced or Involuntary Disappearances (since 2014)
- Abdelhamid El Jamri, Vice president of the Committee for the International Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (2015-2018) ;
- Mohamed Ayatt, Independent Expert on the enhancement of capacity-building and technical cooperation with Côte d’Ivoire in the field of human rights
- Saadia Belmir, member of the UN Committee against Torture (2014-2015) ;
- Mohamed Bennani, member of the Advisory Committee of the Human Rights Council ( 2014-2017)
- Halima Ouarzazi, former president of Working group on new forms of racism of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities (2008-2014)
- Najat Mijd, former Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography ( 2008-2014)
- Mahjoub El Haiba, former member of the Human Rights Committee
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